What is the composition of clinker?

Composition and preparation The Portland clinker essentially consists of four mineral phases: two calcium silicates, alite (Ca3Si) and belite (Ca2Si), along with tricalcium aluminate (Ca3Al) and calcium aluminoferrite (Ca4AlFe). These main mineral phases are produced by heating at high temperature clays and limestone.

What is a clinker mineral?

Therefore, white clinker contains three major constituents: C3S, C2S, and C3A [11]. The minerals formed at low temperature (ca 1200–1300°C) are ill crystallized and contain large amounts of admixtures [13].

What is clinker phase?

Independent of the raw meal used, the different clinker phases were formed in three stages: 1. C2S, C3A and C4AF formation at ~900-1350 °C; 2. Clinker melt formation at ~1350-1400 °C; and 3. C3S formation at >1350 °C.

What is a clinker rock?

Clinker is derived from shale, siltstone, and sandstone beds surrounding the burned coal seams. The term “clinker” comes from the “clink” sound made when the baked rocks are walked on or struck by a rock hammer. Fused breccias can form when overlying rock collapses into the void left by the burned coal seams.

What is LSF in cement?

Lime Saturation Factor (LSF) The Lime Saturation Factor is a ratio of CaO to the other three main oxides. Applied to clinker, it is calculated as: LSF=CaO/(2.8SiO2 + 1.2Al2O3 + 0.65Fe2O3) Often, this is referred to as a percentage and therefore multiplied by 100.

What is called clinker?

Clinker is a nodular material produced in the kilning stage during the production of cement and is used as the binder in many cement products. Clinker, when added with gypsum (to control the setting properties of cement and ensure compressive strength) and ground finely, produces cement.

Which compound is liberates higher heat?

Which compound is liberates higher heat? Explanation: C3S having a faster rate of reaction accompanied by greater heat generation developes early strength of the paste. 5.

What is C3S in clinker?

Alite (C3S): the alite crystal is the preferred clinker phase in Portland cement clinker. The formation of alite is very complex. Alite is only formed in the presence of excess CaO, that is, at CaO/SiO2 > 1 and is thermodynamically stable above 1250°C [44].

How does clinker look like?

Clinker often forms a loose, dark deposit consisting of waste materials such as coke, coal, slag, charcoal, and grit. Clinker often has a glassy look to it, usually because of the formation of molten silica compounds during processing.

How is LSF calculated?

What kind of elements are in coal clinkers?

How They Form. Coal clinkers form when noncombustible elements contained in coal such as iron, calcium, silicon, aluminum and sodium interact with sulfur and carbon at high temperatures. These elements melt together with clays and alkalis to form a glassy slag that eventually hardens into clinkers.

What are the minerals in a Portland cement clinker?

Portland cement clinker contains four principal chemical compounds, which are normally referred to as the clinker minerals. The composition of the minerals and their normal range of levels in current UK and European Portland cement clinkers are summarized in Table 1.1.

What are the compositional parameters of a clinker?

The LSF controls the ratio of alite to belite in the clinker. A clinker with a higher LSF will have a higher proportion of alite to belite than will a clinker with a low LSF. Typical LSF values in modern clinkers are 0.92-0.98, or 92%-98%.

How is coal slurry used as an alternative raw material?

The aim of this study is investigate the potential usage of Turkish Coal Enterprises (TCE) coal slurry waste as an alternative raw material in laboratory and industrial scale Portland cement clinker production. 3 Coal slurry waste Portland cement clinker