## What is the selection rule for LS coupling?

According the the electric dipole selection rules in L S coupling it cannot decay to the ground state (which has S = 0 ), but the fact that the spin-orbit interaction mixes the S = 0 and S = 1 states allows a very weak electric-dipole decay which has only recently been observed.

### What is L and S in LS coupling?

In this coupling scheme it is presumed that the orbital angular momenta of the individual electrons add to form a resultant orbital angular momentum L. Similarly, the individual spin angular momenta should couple to produce a resultant spin angular momentum S. Then L and S combine to form the total angular momentum.

#### Which interaction is strongest in LS coupling?

These cases are described by “L-S coupling”. However, for heavier elements with larger nuclear charge, the spin-orbit interactions become as strong as the interactions between individual spins or orbital angular momenta.

**What is difference between LS coupling and JJ coupling?**

So you have two ways to couple those, and the choice depends on how far the electrons are from each other where the specific angular momentum coupling is more pronounced. So if the electrons are close to each other, then you use LS coupling. While if you have them far apart, you use JJ coupling.

**What is the selection rule for L?**

l′=l±1,m′=m,m±1. These are termed the selection rules for electric dipole transitions (i.e., transitions calculated using the electric dipole approximation).

## What is the origin of selection rules?

Selection rules have been derived for electromagnetic transitions in molecules, in atoms, in atomic nuclei, and so on. The selection rule also plays a role in chemical reactions, where some are formally spin-forbidden reactions, that is, reactions where the spin state changes at least once from reactants to products.

### What is LS coupling explain with example?

The energy levels which are characterised by certain values of L and S are called terms and the coupling of angular momenta of individual electrons to a resulting orbital angular momentum and spin is referred to as LS-coupling or Russell-Saunders coupling.

#### What are the two types of coupling scheme?

There are two principal coupling schemes used: Russell-Saunders (or L – S) coupling. and jj coupling.

**What is LS coupling What is the effect on magnetic moment?**

LS coupling This is an approximation which is good as long as any external magnetic fields are weak. In larger magnetic fields, these two momenta decouple, giving rise to a different splitting pattern in the energy levels (the Paschen–Back effect.), and the size of LS coupling term becomes small.

**What is meant by JJ coupling?**

In spectroscopy: Total orbital angular momentum and total spin angular momentum. A coupling scheme known as jj coupling is sometimes applicable. In this scheme, each electron n is assigned an angular momentum j composed of its orbital angular momentum l and its spin s.

## What are the selection rules in spectroscopy?

Selection rules specify the possible transitions among quantum levels due to absorption or emission of electromagnetic radiation. Incident electromagnetic radiation presents an oscillating electric field E0cos(ωt) that interacts with a transition dipole.

### What are selection rules explain?

A selection rule describes how the probability of transitioning from one level to another cannot be zero. Once the atom or molecules follow the gross selection rule, the specific selection rule must be applied to the atom or molecules to determine whether a certain transition in quantum number may happen or not.

#### What is the total value of L in Russell Saunders coupling scheme?

Total value of L is therefore +4 +2 +0 -1 -2 or L =3. Note that for 5 electrons with 1 electron in each box then the total value of L is 0. This is why L for a d 1 configuration is the same as for a d 6 .

**How to calculate the number of States in LS coupling?**

The possible states obtained in this scheme are 3 D, 3 P, 3 S, 1 D, 1 P, 1 S. Most of these states are strongly degenerate since the energy is independent of M L and M S. The degree of degeneracy is obtained by the product (2L+1) (2S+1) for each term. Hence, the total number of states are 15+9+3+5+3+1=36.

**When to use LS coupling in electron system?**

Then L-S coupling is used. TOTAL ANGULAR MOMENTUM IN MANY ELECTRON ATOMS: The addition of orbital angular momenta for a many electron system is much more involved than that of one electron system.

## When is L and S coupling called normal coupling?

L AND S OR RUSSELL–SAUNDERS COUPLING: This is also called as normal coupling as this occurs most frequently. When more than one electron contributes orbital and spin angular momenta to the total angular momentum J of an atom, J is still the vector sum of these individual momenta.