Is schistosomiasis endemic in the Philippines?
Schistosomiasis is an acute and chronic disease caused by parasitic worms called trematodes or blood flukes. It is endemic in the Philippines affecting 1,599 barangays (villages), in 189 municipalities (towns) and 15 cities, in 28 endemic provinces, in 12 regions.
Where is schistosomiasis endemic?
Epidemiology. Schistosomiasis is prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas, especially in poor communities without access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation. It is estimated that at least 90% of those requiring treatment for schistosomiasis live in Africa.
Is there schistosomiasis in Philippines?
Schistosomiasis remains a public health problem in endemic areas in the Philippines with approximately 12 million people residing in 28 endemic provinces located across 12 different geographical zones at risk of S. japonicum infection [1,2,3,4,5].
Which are the areas where schistosomiasis occurs?
Geographic Distribution. Schistosoma mansoni is found primarily across sub-Saharan Africa and some South American countries (Brazil, Venezuela, Suriname) and the Caribbean, with sporadic reports in the Arabian Peninsula. S. haematobium is found in Africa and pockets of the Middle East.
How do Schistosoma infect humans?
Infection occurs when your skin comes in contact with contaminated freshwater in which certain types of snails that carry schistosomes are living. Freshwater becomes contaminated by Schistosoma eggs when infected people urinate or defecate in the water.
Is Schistosoma mansoni found in the Philippines?
The species of schistosome endemic in the Philippines is S. japonicum. Around 10 million Filipinos are living in endemic areas with 1.9 million individuals directly exposed. The disease is distributed in specific provinces in Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao.
How do you control schistosomiasis?
Prevention & Control
- Avoid swimming or wading in freshwater when you are in countries in which schistosomiasis occurs.
- Drink safe water.
- Water used for bathing should be brought to a rolling boil for 1 minute to kill any cercariae, and then cooled before bathing to avoid scalding.
How is schistosomiasis transmitted to humans?
How can I get schistosomiasis? Infection occurs when your skin comes in contact with contaminated freshwater in which certain types of snails that carry schistosomes are living. Freshwater becomes contaminated by Schistosoma eggs when infected people urinate or defecate in the water.
Where are the endemic areas of schistosomiasis in Leyte?
Schistosomiasis is endemic in 25 areas in Leyte province. These are Abuyog, Alangalang, Babatngon, Barugo, Burauen, Carigara, Dagami, Dulag, Jaro, Javier, Julita, La Paz, Macarthur, Mayorga, Matag-ob, Palo, Pastrana, San Miguel, Sta. Fe, Tabontabon, Tacloban City, Tanauan, Tolosa, Tunga, and Villaba.
When did schistosomiasis first occur in the Philippines?
The health department has no available data on the number of persons infected with schistosomiasis, but they claimed there have been deaths due to the disease every year. The first epidemic of schistosomiasis in the region occurred among Americans and allied forces after landing in Leyte during World War II in 1944.
How many people with schistosomiasis live in Africa?
It is estimated that at least 90% of those requiring treatment for schistosomiasis live in Africa. There are 2 major forms of schistosomiasis – intestinal and urogenital – caused by 5 main species of blood fluke.
What is the who strategy for Schistosomiasis Control?
The WHO strategy for schistosomiasis control focuses on reducing disease through periodic, targeted treatment with praziquantel through the large-scale treatment (preventive chemotherapy) of affected populations. It involves regular treatment of all at-risk groups.