What does apelin do?
Apelin acts as a mediator of the cardiovascular control, including for blood pressure and blood flow. It is one of the most potent stimulators of cardiac contractility yet identified, and plays a role in cardiac tissue remodeling.
What is apelin 12?
Apelin is produced as a 77 amino acid prepropeptide which is cleaved to shorter biologically active C-terminal fragments. Apelin-12 (A12), apelin-13, and, to a lesser extent, apelin-36 are capable to reduce infarct size (IS) and to augment contractile function recovery in the heart of rodents after regional or …
Is apelin produced by the liver?
Distribution and Expression of Apelin in Liver Apelin is expressed in the heart, endothelium, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), brain, kidney, testis, ovary, liver and adipose tissue, with the highest expression levels in the lung and the mammary gland (Hosoya et al., 2000; Kawamata et al., 2001).
Is apelin a hormone?
Apelin was also highly expressed in adipocytes. As a hormone released by adipose tissue, apelin belongs to adipokines family.
What is the Apelinergic system?
The apelinergic system is composed of two peptide ligands (apelin and apela) and a single class A (rhodopsin-like) G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) called the apelin receptor (abbreviated herein as AR; also known as APJ; gene name: APLNR).
What is the best peptide for fat loss?
My favorite science-backed peptides for fat loss that come in needle-free options include:
- Glycyrrhetinic Acid.
Do peptides increase hair growth?
Peptides, being “smaller proteins,” when applied, cause changes in cell behavior, stimulate follicle growth, and promote natural hair production and improvement of hair color.
When is the apelin receptor expressed in the heart?
The apelin receptor is expressed early during the embryonic development of the heart, where it regulates the migration of cell progenitors fated to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, the contractile cells of the heart.
What is the hypotensive effect of apelin in the body?
The hypotensive effect of apelin results from the activation of receptors expressed at the surface of endothelial cells. This activation induces the release of NO, a potent vasodilator, which induces relaxation of the smooth muscle cells of artery wall.
Which is the second peptide in the apelin gene?
In 2013, a second peptide hormone named Elabela was found by Bruno Reversade to also act as an endogenous ligand to the APLNR . The apelin gene encodes a pre-proprotein of 77 amino acids, with a signal peptide in the N-terminal region.
What happens to apelin in the body as you age?
Muscle apelin expression decreases with age in rodents and humans. By supplementing aged mice with exogenous apelin, Cedric Dray, Philippe Valet, and their colleagues demonstrated that the peptide was able to promote muscle hypertrophy and consequently induced a gain in strength.