What is a posterior malleolar fracture?

Posterior malleolus fractures are fractures of the posterior segment of the tibial plafond and a common occurrence in the setting of bimalleolar or trimalleolar ankle fractures.

Does a posterior malleolus fracture require surgery?

Surgery will often be required to ensure the fragments are correctly placed. With that being said, there remains controversy as to when it is most appropriate. Traditionally, surgeons have long recommended surgery if more than 25% of the malleoli is involved.

What causes a posterior malleolus fracture?

Posterior malleolar fractures often occur with associated injuries, such as a Maisonneuve fracture or with bi- or trimalleolar ligamentous injuries.

How do you fix a posterior malleolus fracture?

Our preferred method of fixation for ankle fractures with posterior malleolus fracture is fixation of the posterior malleolus with the lateral malleolus through a posterolateral approach, regardless of the size of the fracture fragment and the fixation of medial malleolus fracture from a separate medial incision.

When should posterior mal be fixed?

The standard indication for fixing a posterior malleolar fracture is a displaced fragment that involves more than 25%–35% of the articular surface of the distal tibia. A number of different surgical approaches to this fracture have been advocated.

When should a posterior malleolus fracture be fixed?

How long does it take to recover from a Trimalleolar fracture?

It takes at least six weeks for bones to heal. Your doctor will use X-rays to monitor the bone healing. These may be more frequent if the fracture was set without surgery.

How long does it take for a broken ankle to stop hurting?

A broken ankle usually takes 6 to 8 weeks to heal, but it can take longer.

How do I know if my medial malleolus is broken?

Symptoms of a medial malleolus fracture can include:

  1. immediate severe pain.
  2. swelling around the ankle.
  3. bruising.
  4. tenderness to pressure.
  5. inability to put weight on the injured side.
  6. visible displacement or deformity of the ankle bones.

What are the symptoms of external tibial torsion?

Examination reveals an external foot-progression angle of 25 degrees, a thigh-foot axis of +30 degrees, and a positive apprehension test for lateral patellar subluxation on the right side. There is also noted symmetrical hip rotation on exam.

How is tibial torsion measured in a seated test?

Special Test: Tibial Torsion Test PROCEDURE (Seated): tibial torsion is measured by having the patient sit with the knees flexed to 90° over the edge of the examining table. the examiner places the thumb of one hand over the apex of one malleolus and the index finger of the same hand over the apex of the other malleolus.

When does tibial torsion resolve in a toddler?

Internal tibial torsion is a cause of in-toeing gait a common rotational variant in toddlers, usually resolving spontaneously by the age of 5 years. A severe residual deformity can result in functional and cosmetic or psychological disorders 2 or can even cause osteoarthritis or chondromalacia patellae if serious 2.

Why are male and female tibial torsion values different?

Males and females are affected equally, and about two thirds of patients are affected bilaterally. The differences in normal tibial torsion values are expected to be caused by the different lifestyles and postures of the different populations, such as cross-legged sitting positions.