What is a germinal center?

The germinal center (GC) is a specialized microstructure that forms in secondary lymphoid tissues, producing long-lived antibody secreting plasma cells and memory B cells, which can provide protection against reinfection.

What is the significance of germinal centers?

Germinal centers are an important part of the B cell humoral immune response, acting as central factories for the generation of affinity matured B cells specialized in producing improved antibodies that effectively recognize antigen (e.g. infectious agents), and for the production of long-lived plasma cells and durable …

Where do you find germinal center?

Germinal centers develop in the B cell follicles of secondary lymphoid tissues during T cell-dependent (TD) antibody responses. The B cells that give rise to germinal centers initially have to be activated outside follicles, in the T cell-rich zones in association with interdigitating cells and T cell help.

What is the germinal center reaction?

The germinal center (GC) reaction is the basis of T-dependent humoral immunity against foreign pathogens and the ultimate expression of the adaptive immune response.

Are there germinal centers in the thymus?

In summary, our results show that autoimmune BWF1 mice have proliferating B cells in germinal center-like structures within the thymus, which most likely support the differentiation of B cells into anti-dsDNA IgG-secreting plasma cells.

What happens in the germinal Centre?

Germinal centres allow memory B cell formation, plasma cell formation, immunoglobulin class switching and leads to the selection of B cells of higher affinity for their cognate antigen (known as affinity maturation).

What cells are found in the germinal centers of the lymphoid follicles?

Slide 8: The main cell types in the germinal center are the germinal center B cells (GCBs), which include centroblasts and centrocytes; follicular dendritic cells; follicular helper T cells; and tingible body macrophages.

Do lymphoid follicles exist in thymus?

It is well-known that lymphoid follicles are observed in the normal and diseased human thymus. The lymphoid follicles are not different from those in lymph nodes, have germinal centers, and contain both dendritic cells and B lymphocytes, which are present in scant numbers in the normal human thy- mus (2, 7).

What happens to B cells in the germinal center?

Within the B-cell follicle of secondary lymphoid organs, germinal center (GC) reactions produce high affinity antibody-secreting plasma cells (PCs) and memory B-cells necessary for the host’s defense against invading pathogens.

Are lymphoid follicles and nodules the same?

Primary follicles: lymphoid follicles without a germinal centre. Secondary follicles: lymphoid follicles with a germinal centre. These mostly contain B-cells. The outer cortex has lymphatic nodules that mostly contain B-cells.

What are the steps of B-cell activation?

Terms in this set (5)

  • antigen recognition-B cell exposed to antigen and binds with matching complementary.
  • antigen presentation-B cell displays epitope, Helper T cell binds secretes interleukin.
  • clonal selection= interleukin stimulates B cell to divide.
  • differentiation=become memory or plasma cells.