What are the side effects of protease inhibitors?

What Are the Potential Side Effects When Using Protease Inhibitors?

  • Insulin resistance.
  • Nausea and diarrhea.
  • Development of gallstones or kidney stones.
  • Changes in how things taste.
  • Insomnia.
  • Elevated numbers in liver function tests.
  • Rash or dry skin.
  • Elevated cholesterol.

What do protease inhibitors inhibit?

Protease is an enzyme in the body that’s important for HIV replication. Protease inhibitor drugs block the action of protease enzymes. This prevents protease enzymes from doing their part in allowing HIV to multiply, interrupting the HIV life cycle as a result. This can stop the virus from multiplying.

Do protease inhibitors cause weight gain?

Fat gain in the abdomen was associated with treatment with a drug from the protease inhibitor class, especially indinavir, nelfinavir or ritonavir. Newer NRTIs and protease inhibitors have not been associated with these body fat changes, and the lipodystrophy syndrome is rare nowadays in people starting treatment.

Which protease inhibitor has boosting effects?

Ritonavir‐boosted PIs currently in use include amprenavir, atazanavir, darunavir, fosamprenavir, indinavir, lopinavir, saquinavir, and tipranavir. Nelfinavir is not boosted because its plasma concentrations are relatively unaffected by co‐administration with ritonavir (Youle 2007).

Why do we need protease inhibitors?

Protease inhibitors are chemical compounds used to protect protein samples from the digestive function of proteases which is triggered during the isolation procedure. As such, they are used to preserve cell lysates and protein samples from imminent natural degradation.

How do you reverse lipodystrophy?

The use of thymidine analogs, especially stavudine and zidovudine, is associated with HIV-associated lipodystrophy. Reversal of lipoatrophy is achievable by switching from stavudine or zidovudine to abacavir or tenofovir.

How can a girl gain weight in a week?

Here are 10 more tips to gain weight:

  1. Don’t drink water before meals. This can fill your stomach and make it harder to get in enough calories.
  2. Eat more often.
  3. Drink milk.
  4. Try weight gainer shakes.
  5. Use bigger plates.
  6. Add cream to your coffee.
  7. Take creatine.
  8. Get quality sleep.

What drug is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor?

2 Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors. NNRTIs noncompetitively bind to the reverse transcriptase enzyme, altering its conformation to prevent DNA binding [63]. Approved NNRTIs include delavirdine, efavirenz, etravirine, nevirapine, and rilpivirine (Fig. 6.2).

Which of the following drugs is used as a booster for protease inhibitors?

Ritonavir as a drug ‘booster’ The most common way that ritonavir is used today is as a booster for other protease inhibitors. Ritonavir causes this effect in two ways. First it helps to increase absorption of other protease inhibitors, mainly by inhibiting enzymes in the intestine that degrade this class of drug.

Why do we use protease inhibitors?

Protease inhibitors are valuable and useful reagents for researchers who want to inhibit general degradation of proteins in tissue or cell extracts by endogenous proteases. During isolation and characterization, proteases may pose a threat to the fate of a protein.

How is HIV protease inhibitor related lipodystrophy syndrome?

Abstract. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor (PI) therapy is frequently associated with a syndrome increasingly referred to as lipodystrophy syndrome, which is characterized by peripheral lipoatrophy, fat accumulation within the abdomen, in the breasts of women, and over the cervical vertebrae (“buffalo hump”), hyperlipidemia,…

What are the side effects of HIV lipodystrophy?

Other features of HIV lipodystrophy syndrome include hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia. Consequently, patients with HIV lipodystrophy syndrome are at increased risk for the development of atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus.

How are PiS and NRTIs related to lipodystrophy?

In children with HIV, both thymidine analogue NRTIs and PIs are implicated in the development of lipodystrophy.Lipodystrophy has been reported in individuals with HIV infection who have never been treated with PIs; possible mechanisms are noted in Pathophysiology.

How is diabetes mellitus related to HIV lipodystrophy?

The incidence of diabetes mellitus or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is increased secondary to hyperglycemia (from insulin resistance) or hyperlipidemia, respectively. Other features of HIV lipodystrophy syndrome include hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia.