What do oligodendrocyte precursor cells do?

Oligodendrocyte precursor cells, also known as NG2+ (nerve/glial antigen 2) glia, and polydendrocytes (Nishiyama, 2007), act as glial stem cells in the mature CNS, giving rise to oligodendrocytes in white matter and persisting in the cortical grey matter in a variety of functional roles (Dimou et al., 2008).

Why are oligodendrocyte precursor cells of particular interest for multiple sclerosis sufferers?

Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), the cells responsible for myelin production, are unable to migrate into sites of myelin loss in the brain. These cells then cluster and disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB), triggering an inflammatory process in the early stages of (MS), a study shows.

Are oligodendrocytes antigen presenting cells?

Oligodendrocytes and their progenitors can present antigen to T cells. Antigen presentation by oligodendroglia can induce CD8 + T cell induced death. Depletion of OPCs by CD8 + T cells may contribute to impaired remyelination.

Where do oligodendrocyte precursor cells come from?

Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are a subtype of glial cells responsible for myelin regeneration. Oligodendrocytes (OLGs) originate from OPCs and are the myelinating cells in the central nervous system (CNS). OLGs play an important role in the context of lesions in which myelin loss occurs.

What are oligodendrocyte lineage cells?

Oligodendrocyte lineage cells, including oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and mature oligodendrocytes, have numerous important functions, which include forming myelin sheaths that enwrap central nervous system axons, supporting axons metabolically, and mediating certain forms of neuroplasticity.

What are precursor cells?

Precursor cells are stem cells that have developed to the stage where they are committed to forming a particular type of new blood cell. By dividing and differentiating, precursor cells give rise to the four major blood cell lineages: red cells, phagocytic cells, megakaryocytes, and…

What is a microglial cell?

Microglial cells are a specialised population of macrophages that are found in the central nervous system (CNS). They remove damaged neurons and infections and are important for maintaining the health of the CNS.

What type of cell is a Schwann cell?

Schwann cells (SCs) are the major glial cell type in the peripheral nervous system. They play essential roles in the development, maintenance, function, and regeneration of peripheral nerves. In the mature nervous system, SCs can be categorized into two major classes: myelinating and nonmyelinating cells.

How big is an oligodendrocyte progenitor cell ( OPC )?

Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells are a subtype of glial cells in the central nervous system, characterized by expression of the proteoglycans PDGFRA, and CSPG4. OPCs are smaller than neurons, of comparable size to other glia, and can either have a bipolar or complex multipolar morphology with processes reaching up to ~50 μm.

What kind of cells are precursors to oligodendrocytes?

[edit on Wikidata] Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), also known as oligodendrocyte precursor cells, NG2-glia or polydendrocytes, are a subtype of glial cells in the central nervous system. They are precursors to oligodendrocytes and may also be able to differentiate into neurons and astrocytes.

How does OLIG2 affect the production of oligodendrocytes?

Expression of Olig2 generates motor neurons and OPCs, dependent on the Shh and regulated by the Notch signaling pathway. This regulation limits the number of motor neurons and allows more oligodendrocytes to be produced. Olig2 is one of the most important transcription factors involved in oligodendrocyte production.

Why are oligodendrocytes important to the axons?

Differentiated oligodendrocytes support axons and provide electrical insulation in the form of a myelin sheath, enabling faster action potential propagation and high fidelity transmission without a need for an increase in axonal diameter.