What is the habitat of Trypanosoma?

Parasites – African Trypanosomiasis (also known as Sleeping Sickness) African Trypanosomiasis, also known as “sleeping sickness”, is caused by microscopic parasites of the species Trypanosoma brucei. It is transmitted by the tsetse fly (Glossina species), which is found only in sub-Saharan Africa.

Where can Trypanosoma be found?

West African trypanosomiasis can be contracted in parts of central Africa and in a few areas of West Africa. Most of the reported cases are found in central Africa (Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Sudan, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo, Chad, and northern Uganda).

Where are tsetse flies found in Nigeria?

Species of the fusca group occur only in the southern part of Nigeria and in West Cameroun and depend on some type of forest vegetation, ranging from relatively dry forest islands and riverine forest in savannah to dense, humid, wet rain forest, for their habitat.

What is the vertebrate host of Trypanosoma?

The life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi involves two intermediate hosts: the invertebrate vector (triatomine insects) and the vertebrate host (humans) and has three developmental stages namely, trypomastigotes, amastigotes and epimastigotes [8].

How do trypanosomes cause disease?

Human African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is a vector-borne parasitic disease. It is caused by infection with protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Trypanosoma.

Does Nigeria have tsetse fly?

There are three species of tsetse fly widely distributed in Northern Nigeria. in Northern Nigeria are both strictly confined to denser vegetation and to thicket along the banks of rivers and streams. For most months of the year G. morsitans submorsitans Newst.

What is the life cycle of tsetse fly?

The adult fly emerges from the pupa in the ground after about 30 days. Over a period of 12-14 days it matures, mates and, if it is a female, deposits its first larva. Thus 50 days elapse between the emergence of one female fly and the subsequent emergence of the first of its progeny.

What kind of disease does Salivarian trypanosomosis cause?

Salivarian trypanosomosis is a worldwide problem caused in large by Trypanosoma evansi, Trypanosoma brucei (including the human infective subspecies T. b. gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense ), Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma congolense. T. brucei, and T. congolense infections are limited to the sub-Saharan tsetse belt.

Who are the Stercorians in the genus Trypanosoma?

Stercorians are trypanosomes passed to the recipient in the feces of insects from the subfamily Triatominae (most importantly Triatoma infestans). This group includes Trypanosoma cruzi, T. lewisi, T. melophagium, T. nabiasi, T. rangeli, T. theileri, T. theodori. The sub genus Herpetosoma contains the species T. lewisi.

How are trypanosomes transmitted from host to host?

T. cruzi, a typical stercorarian trypanosome, is transmitted by the Triatominae bugs. The metatrypanosomes of this species multiply in the mammalian host, in the amastigote form, inside cells of the reticulo-endothelial system and later in other tissues such as skeletal muscles, heart, liver, nervous tissue and reproductive organs.

Where are most Trypanosoma found in the world?

While some of the most common species are found in Africa (responsible for African trypanosomiasis in various parts of sub-Saharan Africa) many other species can be found in various parts of the world (Parts of North America, Canada etc).